PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . The applications of research. Types of research. The research journey . The research process. The chapters in the book in relation to the. Contents: 1. Research, 2. Scientific Method, 3. Formulation of Research Problem, 4. Research Design, 5. Hypothesis, 6. Data, 7. Observation, 8. Questionnaire, 9.

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Uploaded by: NORINE - download RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Hindi) book online at best prices in India on Read RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Hindi) book. of various chapters for the benefit of students, and (iii) every page of the book has been read Research Methodology in all disciplines of various universities. PDF | On Jan 1, , Reetu Sharma and others published Modern Research and Diagnostic Techniques (in HIndi) Book · January with 3, Reads α-decarboxylase (MtbADC) structure was modelled and based on chemoinformatics drug-design approach, potential drug-like inhibitors against.

The codes are then summarized into similar concepts in order to make the extensive text data more comprehensible. From the concepts, categories are formed. This is how a study was analyzed, where qualitative data collection was conducted to study factors affecting the implementation of a randomized controlled trial parallel to the trial's quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a transitional discharge model for people with a serious mental illness.

Inductive logic is then used to arrive at a theory or general principles from the categories revealed by the data.

The inadequacies of deduction and induction logic are well-known. While deduction can give absolute proof, it really does not make contact with the real social world, there is no way to test the validity of the premises. Induction though is driven by data, but it also cannot provide proof of a theory in a strict sense. Triangulation is often used to check whether different methods lead to same results when two or more methods are used to study the same phenomenon.

It acts as an alternative to traditional concepts of reliability and validity. By combining multiple observers, theories, methods, and empirical materials; researchers can hope to overcome the weakness or intrinsic biases and the problems that come from single method, single observer, and single theory studies.

Public Health Relevance Public health has moved through the four developmental phases, namely environmental, individualistic, therapeutic, and new public health. Therefore, there is a need for understanding public health holistically while keeping the users of public health in the center. These issues need to be reexplored using research methods that can complement each other. The health systems are not only debating the alternatives like Health in All Policies to address the social determinants of health but are also exploring how to make health services more equitable.

However, generally provider's perspective is used in defining the concepts of availability, accessibility, and affordability; which have been used rather loosely in the facility surveys or household surveys to identify gaps in infrastructure, equipment, human resources, services coverage, etc.

This approach often fails to assess the felt needs of the health service users. In the recent past, public health has witnessed a paradigm shift from only delivering the interventions to understanding the health behavior of people, especially to prioritize options on how the risk behaviors can be addressed to reduce harm. Putting the knowledge into practice or translational or implementation research to enhance health equity, that is, reducing health status differences between and within population groups, is another area where mixed method research can lead to formulation of policies that enhance access to effective care by provision of user-friendly public health services to those who need it most.

Conclusions Public health deals with several complex situations from formulation of policies to delivery of interventions. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of the society is required.

अनुसंधान विधियों के 14 प्रकार (14 Types of Research Methods) for Competitive Exams

Mixed method approach helps in having a more comprehensive understanding of the structure and functioning of society at large. Mixed method research intentionally integrates quantitative and qualitative methods rigorously to draw on the strengths of each other to ensure that the results of a study are more close to reality.

Hence, public health researchers need to have a good understanding of the mixed method approach including its philosophical underpinnings for exploring the complex situations that confront public health today. Footnotes Conflicts of Interest: None declared. References 1.

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Winslow CE. The untilled fields of public health. Comte A. London Routledge: [Last accessed on Jul 15].

A General View of Positivism. Paris, What is social medicine? Monthly Review. Soc Sci Med. San Francisco: Jossey Bass; Urban health and society: Interdisciplinary approaches to research and practice; pp.

Yan B, Arlin P.

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Dialectical thinking: Implications for creative thinking A-H. Encyclopedia Crearivity California: Academic Press; Magee GA. The Hegel Dictionary; pp. Hussein A.

The use of triangulation in social sciences research: Can qualitative and quantitative methods be combined? J Comp Soc Work. Gruskin S, Dickens B. Human rights and ethics in public health. Am J Public Health. Rafei UM. Changing global scenario and public health for the next millennium. J Health Popul Dev Ctries. Andrew S, Halcomb EJ. Mixed methods research is an effective method of enquiry for community health research.

Contemp Nurse. Beyond the ceiling effect: Using a mixed methods approach to measure patient satisfaction. Int J Mult Res Approaches. Factors to drive clinical practice improvement in a Malaysian intensive care unit: Assessment of organisational readiness using a mixed method approach.

Jick TD. Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Admin Sci Q. Taking the next step: Mixed methods research in Organisational Systems.

Inf Technol Learn Perform J. Mixed method designs in implementation research. Adm Policy Ment Health.

New Delhi: Sage Publications; Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research; pp. Gender differences in health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis patients in Chandigarh. Indian J Tuberculosis.

Designing a mixed methods study in primary care. Ann Fam Med. Miaskowski C. Improving cancer pain management through self-care. Reflections on community-based population health intervention and evaluation for obesity and chronic disease prevention: The Healthy Alberta Communities Project. Int J Public Health. Typology of mixed methods sampling designs in social science research. Qual Rep. In developing countries, it is sometimes difficult to apply the standard marketing research techniques employed elsewhere.

There is often a paucity of baseline data, poor facilities for marketing research e.

The nature of RRA is such that it holds the promise of overcoming these and other limitations of marketing research. The origins of RRA, in Farm Systems Research, are explained and then the principal tools of this research methodology are listed.

Definitions and descriptions of RRA are explained before typical applications and potential applications are described.

The chapter goes on to discuss the relative advantages of RRA relative to other methods and techniques, and its distinctive characteristics are identified. This is followed by an overview of the principles of RRA as applied within marketing.

The final section of the chapter outlines the important contents and preferred orientation of the report of a rapid rural marketing appraisal study. RRA is more commonly described as a systematic but semi-structured activity out in the field by a multidisciplinary team and is designed to obtain new information and to formulate new hypotheses about rural life.

A central characteristic of RRA is that its research teams are multidisciplinary.

(Hindi) Research Methodology for UGC/CSIR NET

Beyond that, the distinction between RRA and other research methodologies dependents upon its multidisciplinary approach and the particular combination of tools that in employs. A core concept of RRA is that research should be carried out not by individuals, but by a team comprised of members drawn from a variety of appropriate disciplines.

Such teams are intended to be comprised of some members with relevant technical backgrounds and others with social science skills, including marketing research skills. In this way, it is thought that the varying perspectives of RRA research team members will provide a more balanced picture. McCracken et al1. Ellman2 offers a good example to compare the "traditional" rural development research to RRA.

He was requested to analyse the achievements of four types of land settlement schemes in Sri Lanka and to recommend a policy for future settlement in one million acres of cultivable land. This meant 80 settlements and two and a half years of field survey were carried out by two experienced researchers. Finally, he and his colleague, helped by two assistants, conducted "full social, economic and attitudinal surveys" with a sample of 20 settlements. Nine months were needed to collect the data, and six months to write it up.

The result: a two-volume report of pages. By the time the message Ellman says "quite a simple one" was absorbed by those who needed to know it, the government had changed and suddenly the study had lost much of its relevance.

With the idea of RRA in mind, he is "convinced that the same message could have been put across more quickly, cheaply and effectively, with evidence drawn from a smaller, purposively selected and studied sample and with no significant reduction in reliability". Ellman was later commissioned to carry out another study, and having learnt from that earlier experience, he identified the minimum amount of data that was required and was likely to be effectively used for planning purposes.

A team of ten people collected data in six weeks, and produced a page report with clear recommendations, which were broadly accepted by the government and the international agency. The project, concerning integrated rural development, was finally implemented. The application of RRA has been quite wide as regards rural development, for example in health, nutrition, emergencies and disasters, non-formal education, agroforestry, natural resource assessment and sociology approaches.

RRA has also been applied in agricultural marketing, although the marketing orientation of RRA studies has not been very well defined. Thus the term rapid appraisal does not refer to a single technique but to a range of investigation procedures. Their chief characteristics are that they take only a short time to complete, tend to be relatively cheap to carry out and make use of more 'informal' data collection procedures.

The techniques rely primarily on expert observation coupled with semi-structured interviewing of farmers, local leaders and officials.

In substance the techniques of RRA have much in common with the social anthropologist's case study approach but are executed over a period of weeks, or at most months, rather than extending over several years. To date RRA has mainly been used in the field of rural development as a short cut method to be employed at the feasibility stage of project planning. RRA is also useful for supporting decisions towards the improvement of agricultural marketing systems in developing countries.

The role that Rapid Rural Marketing Appraisal RRMA can play in this broad sense of marketing research lies in the identification and prioritisation of marketing problems, and the evaluation of practical means of improving marketing functions, to meet the needs for expansion coupled with higher performance.

The first step is to describe accurately and meaningfully the systems that exist. The next step is the evaluation of structures and performance, and the major forces responsible for changing their relationships.

In a broader scope, research must analyse the changing strategic role of marketing in the development process. Rapid rural appraisal is a set of techniques that can be applied as a preliminary stage when embarking on surveys of farmers. The technique essentially involves an informal, rapid, exploratory study of a specified geographical area designed to establish an 'understanding' of local agricultural conditions, problems and characteristics.

They can provide basic information on the feasibility of beginning a survey project in an area, particularly when one is intending to survey an area about which little is known.

Application of Mixed Method Approach in Public Health Research

RRMA is also a suitable approach in the commercial sense of marketing and not merely social, that is the research of consumer needs and wants from the viewpoint which looks at rural people as a target market. As in the case of social marketing, the application of RRMA will depend on particular circumstances and research objectives. RRMA can be used to quickly obtain basic information specifically to aid the generation of hypotheses and the design of questions for a questionnaire.

With a rapid rural appraisal the researcher acts like an explorer, making a brief survey of the horizon before plunging into the depths of the research from which the wider view is no longer possible. If the researcher observes keenly at the start, the remainder of the survey process stands a better chance of success and time will not be wasted. Without a rapid rural appraisal a researcher may find himself surveying the wrong area, collecting the wrong type of information, asking the wrong people, and precious time and funds can be lost back-tracking.

The appraisal can produce, at a minimum cost, a rich description of life in the farming community and an understanding of local agricultural characteristics that will be invaluable in ensuring that the right areas and people are surveyed and that appropriate questions are asked. Differences between rapid rural appraisal and other approaches Chambers3 describes the orientation of RRA as a "fairly-quick and-fairly-clean" appraisal, and as opposed to the fast and careless studies he calls them "quick-and-dirty" studies and the slow and excessively accurate approaches "long-and-dirty".

On the one hand, the most common form of fast, rough studies - the "quick-and-dirty" approach - is termed rural development tourism, that is the brief rural visit by the urban based "expert". Although Chambers says that it can be cost-effective for the outstanding individual, it is important to be clear that it can be actually low-cost research, but of course not cost-effective.

This practitioner, as opposed to the formal academic, wants quick insights and quick results. Commonly rural development tourism means highly biased results, especially concerning anti-poverty biases. In other words, it has large misperceptions and misinterpretations of the rural reality, and not only due to lack of time to carry out a deeper research.

Chambers cites the main biases of rural development tourism as being: spatial urban-tarmac-and-roadside biases, that is going only to easily accessible places , project neglecting non-project areas , personal contact meeting the less poor and more powerful rural people, men rather than women, users of services rather than non-users, and so on , dry season travelling in the post-harvest or post-rainy season, when it is easier and politeness-and-protocol bias lack of courtesy and convention, lack of adaptation to local conditions, shortage of time, etc.

On the other hand, formal and accurate studies - the "long-and-dirty" ones Chambers goes on to describe - are longer and more costly solutions preferred by "well-trained" professionals.

They are preferred by the academic community, interested more in detail, precise observation and measurement and rigorous and respectable methodology and with a generally rather unhurried concern for knowledge for its own sake in the longer term.Concepts are the basic building blocks of theory and are abstract elements representing classes of phenomena.

J Comp Soc Work.

Such a survey can help these institutions to make valid reforms on the basis of the data gathered. Teddlie C, Yu F. Differences between rapid rural appraisal and other approaches Chambers3 describes the orientation of RRA as a "fairly-quick and-fairly-clean" appraisal, and as opposed to the fast and careless studies he calls them "quick-and-dirty" studies and the slow and excessively accurate approaches "long-and-dirty".

A law in social science is a universal generalization about a class of facts. Researchers will compare the different values of the dependent variable severity of the symptoms and attempt to draw conclusions.