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The Key Learning Goals are thought-provoking learning objectives that should help students focus on the key issues in each section. Each Review of Key Learning Goals is an interim summary that addresses the issues posed in the preceding Learning Goals.
This approach also allows students to work with more modest-sized chunks of information. Practice Tests Each chapter ends with a item multiple-choice Practice Test that should give students a realistic assessment of their mastery of that chapter and valuable practice taking the type of test that many of them will face in the classroom if the instructor uses the Test Bank.
This research indicated that students pay scant attention to some standard pedagogical devices. They should be useful, as I took most of the items from Test Banks for previous editions. The back of the book contains a standard alphabetical glossary. Opening outlines preview each chapter, and a chapter recap appears at the end of each chapter. I make frequent use of italics for emphasis, and I depend on frequent headings to maximize organizational clarity.
The preface for students describes these pedagogical devices in more detail. Content The text is divided into 15 chapters, which follow a traditional ordering. The chapters are not grouped into sections or parts, primarily because such groupings can limit your options if you want to reorganize the order of topics.
The topical coverage in the text is relatively conventional, but there are some subtle departures from the norm. Analyze the data and draw conclusions. Report the findings. Allow students to express their ideas freely, even though they will not use the proper terms from the chapter. After a few minutes of discussion, try to pull together their ideas into a hypothesis. Point out important characteristics of hypotheses, particularly their testability.
Often, students have appealing ideas that are not testable. Discussing what makes a hypothesis testable should allow you to bring in the idea of operational definitions and why they are important. After the class has generated a testable hypothesis, you can begin talking about variables. Many students, even in experimental psychology courses, have a difficult time identifying independent and dependent variables, so it is important to begin laying the groundwork at this point.
Students often do a good job of teaching other students how to identify independent and dependent variables. You can serve as a guide to gently remind them of the differences between the two types of variables, but try to allow the class to come to a democratic conclusion. After students have isolated the independent and dependent variables, ask for a list of other variables that might potentially affect the dependent variable in the experiment.
Again, this exercise gives the class some room for creativity and open discussion.
Test Bank for Psychology Themes and Variations 3rd Canadian Edition by Weiten
After several good candidates have been generated, ask students what would happen if these variables were allowed to remain unchecked during the experiment. You can then ask how they would make sure that these extraneous variables do not enter into the experiment and confound the results. This discussion will allow you to discuss experimental design and the need for control in research so that valid conclusions can be derived from an experiment.
You can also discuss the notion that some research is probably not valid because of a lack of control. An interesting sidelight is to ask students to present some claims made in advertisements.
Ask whether the class believes that such claims are actually based on data from well-controlled and well-designed experiments. If not, what are the implications for the claims made in advertising?
Discussing experimental research techniques from this point of view may help students remember to think critically about various studies mentioned later in the semester. Throughout this discussion, take note of the hypotheses or variables suggested by students—perhaps even the names of the students who make the suggestions—that are ruled out by the class because they will not fit within the context of an experimental research project.
Watson presented an interesting class demonstration designed to show students that random assignment does, indeed, create groups that are essentially equal on variables that might affect the outcome of an experiment. Tell your class that you want to design an experiment to test a new basketball coaching technique that you have developed.
The obvious way to test this new approach is to pick two teams, train one team using your new coaching technique while the other team is trained using a traditional approach, and then have the two teams play each other. However, you are worried about a possible extraneous variable in the experiment: A tall, traditionally coached team could beat a short, innovatively trained team for reasons unrelated to the training method.
Random assignment should eliminate such confounding elements by creating equal groups. Watson typically used his female students in this demonstration to avoid biasing height by gender and because they are more numerous. Using female students could also allow you to make a silent statement against gender stereotypes. Pick students randomly with the gender constraint and assign them to Team A or Team B by flipping a coin.
Have Team A stand in front of the class, arranged from shortest to tallest. Then have Team B stand in front of Team A, arranged in the same manner. The result should be two teams approximately equal in height, thus removing that potential extraneous variable from your experiment.
Sometimes random assignment will work with such a small sample, but sometimes you will obtain teams that are much different in height. Before you end this demonstration, ensure that students understand why flipping a coin represents random assignment. Also, be sure that they understand the difference between random selection and random assignment. You can point out that violating the principle of random selection harms the external validity of an experiment the ability to generalize findings beyond the population studied.
Obviously, researchers do not worry too much about this problem because of the vast number of studies using college students and lab rats as subjects.
On the other hand, violating random assignment can destroy the internal validity of the experiment, resulting in confounding and an inability to make cause-and-effect statements. Watson, D. A neat little demonstration of the benefits of random assignment of subjects in an experiment. Makosky, C. Sileo, L. Whittemore, C. Skutley Eds. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Take note of such ideas so that you can discuss them when you cover correlational research approaches. Assuming that you have covered the concept of control within experimentation, students should understand that the control available in the laboratory allows researchers to make cause-and-effect statements, which is the goal of any science.
However, they have also probably mentioned the artificiality of the laboratory situation. Although nonexperimental approaches to research do not allow statements of causality to be drawn, they do have benefits, particularly in terms of generating ideas and hypotheses that might later be subjected to experimental scrutiny or in terms of testing the external validity generalizability of experimental findings.
It is vital that students understand the differences between the different approaches and exactly why the correlational approaches do not allow causality to be determined. An example always makes concepts easier to understand, and this is particularly true when talking about correlational relationships and their lack of causality. Do not end your discussion on this note, however. Be certain that students see the value in correlational approaches and how they might lead to experimental research.
Also, you may wish to convince your students that the ideal is a combination of laboratory and naturalistic research in order to establish causal relationships that would work in the real world. You will need to download some exotic but unappealing food, such as chocolate-covered ants, squid, or tongue. Negotiate to get the lowest possible price. Then ask students if they have ever eaten unusual or strange or exotic foods that are generally unappealing to North American tastes, using some specific examples of these foods.
Pick some of the students who have not previously eaten such foods, and ask them whether they would consider eating the food that you have with you without naming it. Some brave individuals will usually say that they would, particularly if you put a price on this behaviour. After getting several to agree, preferably for free or for a nominal sum, display your food. Usually some of your volunteers will back down, often at the last moment.
Male students may be more prone to actually taste the food because of peer pressure. Scoville recommended choosing students who are likely to back down, because they illustrate the difference between saying something and actually doing it. You can use this demonstration to launch an interesting discussion of the potential pitfalls of survey research and hypothetical questions.
Highlight the results from any recent poll. Ask students to react to the published results now that they have experienced firsthand the relative ease of making a verbal commitment versus the difficulty of actually following through with the behaviour. Scoville, W. What would you do if? Makosky, L. Rogers Eds. Statistical Methods. Many aspects of research methodology can be made clearer and more meaningful through this simple in-class demonstration.
Randomly assign the students in your class to two groups, and mention the importance of random sampling. Obtain the height and shoe size for each student.
Calculate the correlation coefficient for these two measures for each group a computer is highly desirable , and share the correlations with your students.
There is likely to be a moderate positive correlation, but the two groups will probably show different degrees of correlation.
If your computer can generate a scatterplot of the scores for each group, show the plots to the class so they can see the linear trend. You can also use this demonstration to make the point that correlation does not imply causality: Being tall does not cause one to have large feet, and having large feet does not cause one to be tall. Having collected and analyzed these data, you can also discuss measures of central tendency and variability.
These data also lend themselves nicely to an inferential statistical test a t test and a discussion of significant differences. There is no reason to assume that you will find significant differences between your two random groups in either height or shoe size. If significant differences do exist, you could explore the cause s with your class, discussing extraneous variables. Most likely, you will also find an abundance of women or men in one of the two groups, giving you the chance to discuss sampling techniques and the importance of beginning research with equivalent groups.
Use this activity after covering the different research approaches in Chapter 2. Divide the class into small groups. Present the groups with the 10 statements in HM concerning human nature and behaviour and with four research approaches: Give the groups 20 minutes to choose the best research approach for dealing with each statement. If they believe that a problem is not amenable to scientific study, they should mark it with a question mark. Have a group report their answer for the first statement, followed by class discussion until a reasonable conclusion is reached.
Continue with the other statements in the same manner. Be sure that the discussion focuses on the appropriateness of the research approach recommended for each statement, as well as the merits and limits of that approach. According to Fernald and Fernald, the answers are: E They pointed out that Statements 1 and 10 could be explored through naturalistic observation but are tested more thoroughly with the experimental approach. You can make up additional questions to suit your own interests.
This activity gives students a chance to apply the knowledge they have gained from Chapter 2 in a manner that requires both synthesis and critical thinking. Fernald, P. Selecting appropriate research methods. Chapter 2 discusses ethical issues in research, particularly those dealing with deception and animal research.
Certainly ethical concerns encompass more than those two topics. Why are there different principles for research using humans and animals?
Should there be? How are the ethical responsibilities of scientists similar to those of laypersons? How are they different?
Psychology: Themes and Variations
The goals of this discussion are to identify the purpose of and need for ethical guidelines in research and to generalize those notions to everyday life. Many resources will provide background information for either you or your students.
Additionally, you can access the ethical principles at www. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm.
In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of research. Psychologists strive to be aware of the possible effect of their own physical and mental health on their ability to help those with whom they work. Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility Psychologists establish relationships of trust with those with whom they work.
They are aware of their professional and scientific responsibilities to society and to the specific communities in which they work. Psychologists uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their professional roles and obligations, accept appropriate responsibility for their behaviour, and seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm.
Psychologists consult with, refer to, or cooperate with other professionals and institutions to the extent needed to serve the best interests of those with whom they work.
Psychologists strive to contribute a portion of their professional time for little or no compensation or personal advantage. Principle C: Integrity Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology. In these activities, psychologists do not steal, cheat, or engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional misrepresentation of fact.
Psychologists strive to keep their promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. In situations in which deception may be ethically justifiable to maximize benefits and minimize harm, psychologists have a serious obligation to consider the need for, the possible consequences of, and their responsibility to correct any resulting mistrust or other harmful effects that arise from the use of such techniques. Principle D: Justice Psychologists recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures, and services being conducted by psychologists.
Psychologists exercise reasonable judgment and take precautions to ensure that their potential biases, the boundaries of their competence, and the limitations of their expertise do not lead to or condone unjust practices. Principle E: Psychologists are aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making.
Psychologists are aware of and respect cultural, individual, and role differences, including those based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status and consider these factors when working with members of these groups. Psychologists try to eliminate the effect on their work of biases based on those factors, and they do not knowingly participate in or condone activities of others based upon such prejudices.
American Psychological Association, , pp. Resolving Ethical Issues 2. Competence 3. Human Relations 4. Privacy and Confidentiality 5.
Advertising and Other Public Statements 6. Record Keeping and Fees 7. Education and Training 8. Research and Publication 9. Assessment It is interesting that the discussion of ethics in introductory psychology almost always occurs exclusively in the area of research. This oversight can be remedied by talking about ethics as a topic that applies to all psychologists.
Providing case studies and asking for class discussion of the ethical issues can be used to promote critical thinking.
Ethics in Psychological Research with Humans. Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, — Adair, J. Ethics of psychological research: New policies; continuing issues; new concerns.
Canadian Psychology, 42, Hadjistavropoulous, T. The relative importance of the ethical principles adopted by the American Psychological Association. Canadian Psychology, 43, Salkind provided the following synopsis of the guidelines for research with human participants: When a study is planned, the researcher must be the first and most important judge of its ethical acceptability.
The researcher is responsible for ensuring ethical practices, including the behavior of assistants, students, employees, collaborators, and anyone else involved in the process. A fair and reasonable agreement must be reached between the researcher and the subjects prior to the beginning of research. If deception is necessary, the researcher must be sure it is justified and a mechanism must be built in to ensure that subjects are debriefed when the research is concluded.
Every possible effort should be made to protect participants from physical and psychological harm. Once the research is complete, should the participant so indicate, the results should be shared and the participant should be given a chance to clarify any discrepancies she or he might be aware of.
If the research should result in harm of any kind, the researcher has the responsibility to correct the harm. All the information obtained in a research study is confidential. This knowledge will allow them to understand and appreciate their rights as research participants. As an exercise, you could have them analyze their research participation both in terms of what they learned about research techniques and what they learned about research ethics.
If they can inform their students that the introductory psychology students potential subjects are aware of the ethical guidelines governing research, then the research students will probably take their ethical responsibilities much more seriously.
Box Hyattsville, MD or access Principle 8 at www. Salkind, N. Exploring research 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Divide students into small groups and have them play the role of members of an institutional review board IRB at their school. The groups should debate the merits of this study in light of its use of deception and the ethical principles.
It is likely that students who know the results of an actual study may be prone to say that the research was justified because the information gained outweighed the cost to the participants. Unfortunately, this type of analysis cannot be made by an IRB, which must evaluate the proposal before the research is conducted.
This proposal is based on a study by Baron, Russell, and Arms They found that higher levels of negative ions increased the mood that the participants reported, regardless of whether positive or negative. One variation of this activity would be to let some students know the outcomes before debating the proposal.
For an interesting variation of this activity, let a student play the role of the potential researcher. This student must appear before the IRB and defend the proposed study. If you can rotate students through the researcher and IRB member roles, students will get a full view of the process of research. Playing both roles will help students hone their critical thinking skills. Baron, R. Negative ions and behavior: Impact on mood, memory, and aggression among Type A and Type B persons.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, Rosnow, R.
Teaching research ethics through role-play and discussion. Teaching of Psychology, 17, — Researchers who publish in APA journals must attest to the fact that they followed the guidelines below during their animal research: Allresearchers working with animals should be familiar with these guidelines.
Animals being transported should be given adequate food, water, ventilation, and space and be subjected to no unnecessary stress. Alternatives to animal research should always be considered. The minimum number of animals necessary to answer the research question should be used. The higher the level of distress, the greater the burden of responsibility and justification is for the researcher.
This guideline is quite broad and covers such topics as aversive versus appetitive procedures, food or water deprivation, physical restraint, extreme environmental conditions, prey killing, aggressive interactions, deliberate infliction of trauma, paralytic agents, and surgical procedures. Research with endangered species requires particular justification. If euthanasias necessary, it should be accomplished as humanely as possible.
Research with animals is a particularly controversial issue at this time, as animal activists have become vocal and even violent. If you check newspapers and news magazines for a month or so, you are likely to find stories relevant to this issue that you can bring to class for additional information. A Question of Suffering and Science. For example: Does the external validity of animal research that is, its generalizability to humans make a difference?
This practice has drawn especially sharp attention from animal activists. How do students feel about cosmetics companies testing their products on animals, injecting chemicals into their eyes and the like?
Neither of these issues actually deal with psychology, but they do raise the ire of animal activists and may explain some of the vehemence directed at behavioral research involving animal subjects. The Newsweek article quotes the American Humane Association as stating that more than 2, dogs and 3, cats are born every hour, compared with babies per hour.
Also, in more than 22 million cats and dogs were taken in by animal shelters, and at least 12 million were destroyed. The Newsweek article contains a poignant essay by a mother whose daughter has cystic fibrosis: My daughter has cystic fibrosis. Her only hope for a normal life is that researchers, some of them using animals, will find a cure.
Or to vandalizing such laboratories? Or to planting booby traps or bombs that will injure, maim, or even kill the researchers? Where do the rights of animals and researchers begin and end? You can expect this to be an emotionally charged issue in class. It is likely that students will end up on opposite sides of the issue, perhaps with very strong feelings. Critique of Science, Ethics and Policy.
For further information, contact: Box Washington Grove, MD e-mail: Of pain and progress. Newsweek, pp. Herzog, H.
Style, grammar, and word choice: Editing yourself and others
Animal consciousness and human conscience. Contemporary Psychology, 36, 7—8. Radner, D. Animal consciousness. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. Rollin, B. The unheeded cry: Animal consciousness, animal pain, and science. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
He divides students into small groups and asks them to play the role of members of an animal care and use committee at their school. Each group gets a research proposal and must decide whether or not to permit the research. He tells groups to decide by consensus rather than majority vote. Forcing students to take a stand on actual cases, instead of merely mouthing general platitudes, often helps them clarify their values.
Herzog provided four cases that address different critical issues in the debate over animal research; you can find these cases in his Teaching of Psychology article. Both predated the current ethical guidelines for research with animals. Again, research animals received electric shock, but the results had important implications for humans. Herzog pointed out that you could slightly alter the specific details of each case to make for more interesting discussion. For example, what happens if some students consider the case in HM with rats instead of monkeys?
Brady, J. Ulcers in executive monkeys. Scientific American, 4 , 95— Discussing animal rights and animal research in the classroom.
Test Bank for Psychology Themes and Variations 3rd Canadian Edition by Weiten
Teaching of Psychology, 17, 90— Myers, A. Experimental psychology 3rd ed. Solomon, R. Traumatic avoidance learning: Acquisition in normal dogs. Psychological Monographs, 67 4, Whole No. A discussion of some of the advances that have been made through animal research should at least make your students consider the benefits, if not convince them. Domjan and Purdy found that many of the leading introductory psychology texts do not explicitly acknowledge the contributions of animal research, sometimes leading students to the conclusion that important research used human rather than animal subjects.
They presented a review of their findings relative to the importance of animal research, ethical issues in animal research, and justification of animal research. There was an error using MindLinks. You have successfully logged out. Thank you for using CourseMate. You can now close your browser.
A user, perhaps you via another browser or computer, or perhaps someone who has your Dashboard credentials, has crossed into your CourseMate account.
Because CourseMate only allows one concurrent session per user, the session you have been using is now terminated. Password: A valid password is required.American Psychologist, 40, — This knowledge will allow them to understand and appreciate their rights as research participants. We were unable to locate the resource specified in this MindLinks item. However, this is probably too much of a simplification. Moreover, numbering both the Key Learning Goals and the material in the Review of Key Learning Goals makes it easier for students to see the relation between these companion features.
Watson, pp. Individuals having one or more significant hobbies report more job satisfaction than individuals having no hobbies. Education and Training 8. As a science gains more control over its area of study, it seems that problems with that control arise.