Cambridge Core - English Literature: General Interest - The Cambridge Companion The Cambridge Companion to Fantasy Literature . PDF; Export citation. Cambridge University Press. - The Cambridge Companion to Fantasy Literature. Edited by Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. The Cambridge Companion to Fantasy Literature - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. PDF file of the Cambridge.
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The Cambridge companion to: Fantasy literature | 𝗥𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗣𝗗𝗙 on ResearchGate | The Cambridge companion to: Fantasy literature | Fantasy is not so much. Fantasy is a creation of the Enlightenment and the recognition that excitement and wonder can be found in imagining impossible things. From the ghost stories . Köp Cambridge Companion to Fantasy Literature av Edward James, Farah Mendlesohn PDF-böcker lämpar sig inte för läsning på små skärmar, t ex mobiler.
Manlove, Colin N. London [u. Notre Dame, Ind. Paperback London [u. Press, Reid, Robin Anne Hrsg. Westport, Conn. Red planets : Marxism and science fiction Malden, Mass. Cambridge [u. Press, , Speculations on speculation : theories of science fiction Gunn, James E. Lanham, Maryland [u. New York, NY [u. Ropley : Zero Books, Related Papers. Since Tolkien and his many imitators, however, it has become a major publishing phenomenon.
In this volume, critics and authors of fantasy look at its history since the Enlightenment, introduce readers to some of the different codes for the reading and understanding of fantasy, and examine some of the many varieties and subgenres of fantasy; from magical realism at the more literary end of the genre, to paranormal romance at the more popular end.
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Sort order. May 15, Mladen rated it liked it. One would expect more from a publication like this one. The book is divided into 3 sections; the first two are actually interesting - the texts written by Brian Attebery, Edward James, Adam Roberts, Gary Wolfe and Andrew Butler stand out in the crowd - as is expected from them their texts, generally, are always well written, analytical and provide interesting and relevant information One would expect more from a publication like this one.
The book is divided into 3 sections; the first two are actually interesting - the texts written by Brian Attebery, Edward James, Adam Roberts, Gary Wolfe and Andrew Butler stand out in the crowd - as is expected from them their texts, generally, are always well written, analytical and provide interesting and relevant information and significant insights into the matter.
Jim Casey wrote a fine piece about postmodern fantasy, as well as Bould and Vint about politics. The texts written by the above authors make this book worth reading. Others, I'm afraid, seem to be written only to provide something written about the topic, sometimes wandering off into strange fields e. I could never say that Earthsea is children's fantasy.
YA yes, interesting to adults who read between the lines, but children's?!?!? View all 4 comments. A must have for people who love fantasy. Excellent reference work. The critical analyses of your favor it books are dead on.
That and my site wish list grew exponentially as I read.
Jan 13, A. Carlisle rated it really liked it. Good Morning, Everyone! Lewis would wage: In practice, though, his groupings depend upon the particular binary oppositions that his previous structural studies have led him to expect.
Certainly when Sophocles dramatized the story, his version did not invite the spectator to focus on autochthony as a key theme, nor do Aristotle or Freud emphasize it in their readings of the story. Andrew M. Modern fantasy is rooted in ancient myth, mysticism, folklore, fairy tale and romance. The most obvious starting point for this study was the late eighteenth century —the point at which industrialization transformed western society.
The book is a welcome contribution to both academic and popular studies on fantasy literature. Thanks for visiting, and have a great week! Sep 21, Arkadeb rated it really liked it Shelves: Quite heavy reading.
Extremely informative and well researched as is expected of a Cambridge Companion. However there is some confusion regarding Urban fantasy and paranormal romance. Aug 01, Guadalupe Campos rated it really liked it. El peor es el de W. Senior, "Quest fantasies" lo peor del libro, roza lo ilegible , una mera lista de argumentos a la que no se le cae una idea, y que de paso no se priva de spoilear el final de una decena de novelas y el de una saga entera.
Mar 22, Alisha rated it liked it Shelves: Some of this was interesting, some of it was less than interesting. May 19, Cathy Wang rated it it was amazing Shelves: My first and best academic book in English. Veronica Schanoes considers the popularity and interpretations of different periods of history in works of fantasy and mulls on the role that ideologies of history and scholarship have played; Graham Sleight moves on to consider the ways in which fantasy has allowed iconoclastic thought-experiments in the area of history and religion.
Wolfe On 1 July , in his magazine The Spectator which, widely available in coffeehouses, was probably the closest thing eighteenth-century England had to what we would now think of as a popular blog Joseph Addison introduced a topic of discussion that might sound familiar to modern readers of fantasy: There is a kind of writing wherein the poet quite loses sight of Nature, and entertains his reader's imagination with the characters and actions of such persons as have many of them no existence but what he bestows on them; such are fairies, witches, magicians, demons, and departed spirits.
This Mr. Dryden calls the fairy way of writing, which is, indeed, more difficult than any other that depends on the poet's fancy, because he has no pattern to follow in it, and must work altogether out of his own invention. In fact, of all the various terms we now employ to talk about fantasy literature, probably the first to evolve was this distinction between imagination and fancy, widely familiar to modern readers from its most famous formulation in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Biographia Literaria in But, as Addison demonstrates, the debate over these terms and indeed over the whole notion of fantasy as a mode of poetic creation had been going on for more than a century prior to Coleridge's essay.
In another issue of The Spectator, Addison wrote, There are few words in the English language which are employed in a more loose and uncircumscribed sense than those of the fancy and the imagination. In other words, what we call imagination or fancy has to do with our reactions to or memories of objects of nature or art.
Addison's view partakes of what was already a long-standing view of imagination as a mirror of the external world, to use a metaphor from Yeats borrowed by M.
Abrams in his classic study The Mirror and the Lamp. But in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, this view of imagination, thanks largely to the Romantic movement, would come to be supplanted by a view of imagination as a lamp illuminating unseen worlds beyond perceived reality the fairy way of writing, to use the term from John Dryden that Addison borrowed.
This new view was already a topic of vigorous discussion by the mid eighteenth century. In , the German critic, poet, and translator of Milton's Paradise Lost, Johann Jakob Bodmer wrote: The imagination is not merely the soul's treasury, where the senses store their pictures in safekeeping for subsequent use; besides this it also has a region of its own which extends much further than the dimension of the sensesIt not only places the real before our eyes in a vivid image and makes distant things present but also, with a power more potent than that of magic, it draws that which does not exist out of the state of potentiality, gives it a semblance of reality and makes us see, hear and feel these new creations.
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The brothers A. Lewis would wage: namely, that fantastic narratives are not necessarily allegories or fables. But it was Samuel Taylor Coleridge's distinction between fancy and imagination that set the stage for the critical debate that would occupy much of the nineteenth century and that arguably surrounded the birth of the modern fantasy narrative.
Writing in the early chapters of Biographia Literaria about Wordsworth's poetry, Coleridge describes his growing conviction that fancy and imagination were two distinct and widely different faculties, instead of being, according to the general belief, either two names with one meaning, or, at furthest the lower and higher degree of one and the same power. The Fancy is indeed no other than a mode of Memory emancipated from the order of time and space.
More than seventy years later, the Scottish writer George MacDonald, nearing the end of his career as one of the Victorian era's leading fantasists, would return to this distinction between fancy and imagination, offering his own variation: speaking of literary forms, he wrote, When such forms are new embodiments of old truths, we call them products of the Imagination; when they are mere inventions, however lovely, I should call them the work of the Fancy.
Indeed, according to Stephen Prickett, by something very extraordinary had happened. From being terms of derision, or descriptions of daydreaming, words like fantasy and imagination suddenly began to take on new status as hurrah-words.
Tolkien, C. Lewis, and Ursula K. Le Guin , critics in the major English journals remained sceptical of the uses of the fantastic in works of fiction, and within a few decades the currency of the fantastic had been devalued once again. This, at least was the argument addressed by Some Remarks on the Use of the Preternatural in Works of Fiction, an essay published anonymously in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine in September but widely attributed to the Scottish critic John Wilson.
Fantastic or supernatural elements, the author argued, should be sparingly used, in order to avoid monotony, and prevent the disgust which is always sure to be felt, when they are no longer regarded with astonishment. Hoffmann's work and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein in his essay On the Supernatural in Fictitious Composition , demanded that fantastic elements should be rare, brief, indistinct, yet characterized by philosophical reasoning and moral truth. Scott's essay also proved influential in France: translated as Du merveilleux dans le roman in the April issue of La Revue de Paris, it was later reprinted in considerably truncated form, with references to Mary Shelley omitted as the introduction to a French collection of Hoffmann's tales though Scott's phrase the fantastic mode of writing was translated by editor J.
Cefauconpret as genre fantastique. Together with an earlier enthusiastic essay on Hoffmann by the philologist Jean-Jacques Ampre son of the famous physicist and pioneer in electrical theory in the magazine Le Globe in , it helped give currency to le fantastique as a genre in French critical thought, a notion further advanced by Charles Nodier's manifesto in La Revue de Paris, Du fantastique en literature, which ranged from Homer and the Bible to Goethe and the German Romantics in a wide-ranging defence of the fantastic.
Nodier himself was a pioneer of the conte fantastique, through such tales as Trilby, the Fairy of Argyll , written after a visit to Scotland during which he met Walter Scott and the more Gothic-flavoured Smarra, or Demons of the Night In an anonymous essay titled The Progress of Fiction as an Art, which appeared in the Westminster Review in , the author who may have been George Eliot, a subeditor of the magazine at that time argued that art, like technology, progresses from more primitive to more sophisticated forms, and a scientific and somewhat sceptical age has no longer the power of believing in the marvels which delighted our ruder ancestors.
Falsehood is so easy, truth so difficult, wrote George Eliot in her novel Adam Bede. The pencil is conscious of a delightful facility in drawing a griffin the longer the claws, and the larger the wings, the better; but that marvellous facility which we mistook for genius is apt to forsake us when we want to draw a real unexaggerated lion.
It is hardly surprising, then, that when something reasonably resembling modern fantasy began to emerge, it often did so in the disguise of children's literature as with John Ruskin, Lewis Carroll, or Charles Kingsley , pseudo-historical fiction as with Walter Scott , hermetic or occult fiction as with Edward Bulwer Lytton , or pseudomedievalia as with William Morris.
In fact, the modern term fantasy novel, with its implication of a narrative which combines novelistic characterization and theme with the sort visionary imagination that Coleridge and Blake described, might well have seemed an oxymoron to literary readers in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Early novels often presented themselves as histories, as in Henry Fielding's History of Tom Jones, A Foundling or Daniel Defoe's The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe , which argued in its preface that it was an actual journal discovered by its editor, Defoe, who claimed it was a just History of Fact.
In contrast to these private histories as opposed to the more public histories that were seen as the purview of historians were narratives that identified themselves as romances, including such classic early Gothic stories as Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho: A Romance or Matthew Lewis's The Monk: A Romance The comparative virtues of the two forms were debated in numerous essays, sometimes by authors as important to the history of Gothic fiction as William Godwin Of History and Romance, and Charles Brockden Brown The Difference Between History and Romance, While we can reasonably argue that the fantastic in the broadest sense had been a dominant characteristic of most world literature for centuries prior to the rise of the novel, we can also begin to discern that the fantasy genre may well have had its origins in these eighteenth- and nineteenth-century discussions of fancy vs.
More specifically, we can trace particular elements of this genre to three important literary traditions which evolved during this period: the imaginary private histories mentioned above in other words, the early novel , the popularity of the Gothic romance, and the renewal of interest in folk and fairy tales leading to the literary or art fairy tale or Kunstmrchen in Germany, where this form achieved a particular vitality during the Romantic era.
Since the private histories are a part of the history of the novel as a general form, and since the Gothic is the purview of another essay in this volume, we will focus here largely on the emerging role of the Kunstmrchen as a kind of cauldron of literary fantasy during the nineteenth century. Literary fairy tales, both original and adapted from folk sources, had been both familiar and popular since the late seventeenth century through the work of Countess dAulnoy Les Contes des Fees [Tales of fairies], , Charles Perrault Les Contes de ma Mre lOie [Tales of Mother Goose], , and others.
But with the Romantic movement, especially in Germany, such tales became the topic of a deliberate movement related to the debates between fancy and imagination discussed earlier. Some of Friedrich Schlegel's comments in the journal Das Athanum virtually read like manifestos for a new narrative art form, and debates over the nature and meaning of Kunstmrchen continued in the frame story of Ludwig Tieck's Phantasus , which collected many of his earlier stories and dramas dating back to While Tieck and others readily acknowledged the influence of Goethe in the development of this new kind of narrative Goethe's seminal Das Mrchen had been published in , it is in his work and that of his contemporaries E.
Hoffmann, Novalis Friedrich von Hardenburg , and Baron de la Motte Fouqu that we can begin to trace a more or less direct line of descent through Victorian and later fantasy. For example, Tieck's story The Elves concerns a little girl who, while playing with her brother, crosses a footbridge which has been forbidden because it leads to what appears to be a poor settlement of gypsies.
Instead, she finds herself in a verdant world of tall, beautiful elves and elemental spirits, where she visits their palace, meets the Metal-prince and enjoys various adventures.
The Cambridge Companion to Fantasy Literature
When she returns home the next morning, she learns that seven years have passed. She spends the remainder of her life remembering this magical world, until years later her own daughter again gains access to it. In many ways this story anticipates the form which Farah Mendlesohn calls the portal fantasy,18 even introducing the time-shift aspect which becomes a common feature in such later examples of the form as C. Lewis's Narnia. The Elves was one of five tales by Tieck translated by Thomas Carlyle along with others by Johann August Musus who had begun publishing collections of folk tales as early as , E.
The sole Hoffmann story included in Carlyle's collection was the novella The Golden Pot, originally published in and rightly regarded as a masterpiece of Romantic narrative literature. Subtitled A Fairy Tale for Our Times, the Hoffmann story prefigures modern fantasy in another way: it begins in the contemporary urban setting of Dresden, where the hapless student Anselmus finds himself drawn into an increasingly complex world of elemental spirits, alchemists and snake-ladies.
Partly through the influence of Carlyle's and other translations from the German, partly because of the popularity of the Brothers Grimm stories and partly because of the wild popularity of Hoffmann throughout Europe a ten-volume edition of his works appeared in Germany in , and a twelvevolume edition of translations appeared in Paris in , Germanic settings became almost a convention of literary fairy stories in early Victorian England. John Ruskin's bestselling The King of the Golden River , published , for example, is set in the Styria region of Austria, with the protagonists named Hans and Schwartz.
It may be significant that German Romance was originally published in Edinburgh, since the writer who most fully embraced the aesthetics and techniques of the German romantics was George MacDonald, sometimes credited as the author of two of the earliest modern fantasy novels, Phantastes and Lilith MacDonald, who was only three years old when German Romance appeared, may well have come to the Germans on his own though he had a copy of Carlyle in his library ; in one of the more intriguing mysteries in the development of Victorian fantasy, he according to his son Greville was hired to catalogue a vast library in a castle or mansion in the far north of Scotland when he was only eighteen, in No one knows where that library was, or what was in it, but after this experience he was clearly enamoured of writers such as Hoffmann and Novalis, even issuing his own privately printed translations of several of Novalis's spiritual songs in MacDonald's first novel, Phantastes, concerning a young student named Anodos who is drawn into a dreamlike fairyland when the furnishings of his room gradually transform into an enchanted forest, is liberally sprinkled with quotations from Novalis, and the story as a whole owes a great deal to a long interpolated fairy tale in Novalis's unfinished novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen.
More important, perhaps, is the manner in which it adds to Tieck's and Hoffmann's anticipation of modern fantasy narratives, most strikingly in a scene in which Anodos looks into a mysterious cupboard and realizes that, beyond the household cleaning supplies and brooms, a tunnel leads toward a night-time sky a clear prefiguration of the opening of The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe by C.
Lewis, who once claimed that it was MacDonald's novel which baptized his imagination. He was a friend of both John Ruskin and Charles Dodgson who photographed his children and urged Dodgson to publish what would become the most famous of all Victorian fantasies, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , which appeared under the name Lewis Carroll.
He met the major English poets and novelists of the age and even befriended American writers such as Longfellow and Mark Twain. And, far from abandoning fantasy during the decades between his two major adult works, he instead shifted towards those modes of fantasy that seemed to be more acceptable to a literary culture increasingly devoted as we have seen to domestic realism. He wrote a series of regional Scottish novels some of which, such as The Portent , included fantasy elements , but achieved his greatest success with a series of books and stories for children, including The Light Princess , The Golden Key , At the Back of the North Wind , and The Princess and the Goblin , sometimes regarded as his masterpiece.
These, along with other classics by Carroll, Ruskin, Thackeray The Rose and the Ring, , and Charles Kingsley another MacDonald friend, now known best for The WaterBabies, , helped create the impression that the Victorian era was something of a golden age of children's fantasy, while remaining all but intolerant of fantasy for adults.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge's own daughter Sara produced a fascinating German-influenced fairy tale titled Phantasmion in , which, with its complex plot, fully realized secondary world and political machinations six different countries of fairyland are presented , anticipates a number of key features of a particular type of fantasy novel. When Hans Christian Andersen's tales were translated in five volumes in , they were enormously successful, and Andersen himself toured England the following year as a major literary celebrity, meeting Dickens and other major figures.She is the author of six books and many articles on early Wales, England, Ireland and Denmark.
MacDonald's first novel, Phantastes, concerning a young student named Anodos who is drawn into a dreamlike fairyland when the furnishings of his room gradually transform into an enchanted forest, is liberally sprinkled with quotations from Novalis, and the story as a whole owes a great deal to a long interpolated fairy tale in Novalis's unfinished novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen. The French composer Hector Berlioz's best-known work remains his Symphonie Fantastique , a programmatic piece which begins by invoking an idealized love and ends with a fiery witches sabbath.
This is enormously liberating. What the schema offers is a way of considering fantasy on its own terms rather than in the terms used by critics of mimetic fiction. Farah Mendlesohn. Of all the Gothic novels from this period the one that proved most influential was Mary Shelley's Frankenstein.
Lewis would wage: namely, that fantastic narratives are not necessarily allegories or fables.