Immediacy, Hypermediacy, and Remediation g Mediation and Remediation. 9 Networks of Remediation. I1 Media. 4 Computer Games. 6 Digital Photography. PDF | 45 minutes read | On Jan 1, , Stephen Dobson and others published Remediation. Understanding New Media - Revisiting a Classic. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Feb 28, , Jay David Bolter and others published Remediation: Understanding New Media.

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much cited texts, such as Literacy in the New Media Age by Gunther Kress A presentation of Remediation. Understanding New. Media. The authors note in the preface that the book .. PDF download for Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin, Remediation: Formal Analysis and Cultural Critique in Digital Media Theory No Access. Jay David. What concerns us is remediation in our current media in North. America . these new applications, the desire for immediacy is apparent in claims that digital.

Computer-generated projective images are mathe- matically perfect, at least within the limits of computational error and the resolution of the pixelated screen. Renaissance perspective was never perfect in this sense, not only because of hand methods, but also because the artists often manipulated the perspective for dramatic or allegorical effect Elkins ; Kemp , 20, ; Hagen X Of course, digital graphic perspective can be distorted too, but even these distortions are generated mathematically.

Computer graphics also expresses color, illumination, and shading in mathematical terms Foley et al. So, as with perspective painting, when computer graphics lays claim to the real or the natural, it seems to be appealing to the Cartesian or Galilean proposition that mathematics is appro- priate for describing nature.

Furthermore, to Cartesian geometry computer graphics adds the algorithmic mathematics of John von Neumann and Alan Turing. Computer programs may ultimately be human products, in the sense that they embody algorithms devised by human programmers, but once the program is written and loaded, the machine can operate with- out human intervention. Programming, then, employs erasure or ef- facement, much as Norman Bryson defines erasure for Western painting, or as Cavell and others describe the erasure of human agency from the production of photographs.

In digital graphics, human programmers may be in- volved at several levels. The computer operating systems are written by one group of specialists; graphics languages, such as Open GL, are writ- ten by others; and applications are programs that exploit the resources offered by languages and operating systems.

All of these classes of pro- grammers are simultaneously erased at the moment in which the com- puter actually generates an image by executing the instructions they have collectively written. The fact that digital graphics is automatic suggests an affinity to photography.

In both cases, the human agent is erased, although the techniques of erasure are rather different. With photography, the auto- matic process is mechanical and chemical. The shutter opens, and light streams in through the lens and is focused on a chemical film. The pro- cess of recording itself is holistic, with no clearly defined parts or steps. For this reason, many in the nineteenth century could regard light or nature itself as the painter. Talbot did so in his book The Pencil of Nature , and Niepce did as well, when he wrote that "the Daguerrotype is not merely an instrument which serves to draw Nature; on the con- trary it is a chemical and physical process which gives her the power to reproduce herself Trachtenberg , 13; see also Jussim , In digital graphics, however, it is not easy to regard the program as a natural product, except in the sense that nature steers the electrons in- side the computer chips.

Digiral graphic images are the work of hu- mans, whose agency, however, is often deferred so far from the act of drawing that it seems to disappear. This deferral is especially important in real-time animation and virtual reality, where the computer is draw- 4.

Computer graphics, representa- tional painting, and traditional photography efface the visible signs of agency; an American abstract art- ist like Rauschenberg, however, seeks to efface the act of erasure it- self. See Fisher , The automatic or deferred quality of computer program- ming promotes in the viewer a sense of immediate contact with the image. Experts on computer graphics often say that they are striving to achieve "photorealism"—in other words, to make their synthetic images indistinguishable from photographs.

In such cases the computer is imitating not an external reality but rather another medium. We argue later that this is all any new technology could do: To achieve photorealism, the synthetic digital image adopts the criteria of the photograph.

Mediation (Marxist theory and media studies)

It offers a single station point, a monocular point of view, and a photographic sense of appropriate composition. Computet graphics experts do not in general imitate "poor" or "distorted" photographs exotic camera angles or lighting effects , precisely because these distorted photographs, which make the viewer conscious of the photographic process, are themselves not regarded as realistic or immediate.

Thus, photographs and syn- thetic images achieve the same effect of erasure through different means. The photograph erases the human subject through the mechan- ics and chemistry of lens, shutter, and film. Digital graphics erases the subject algorithmically through the mathematics of perspective and shading embodied in a program.

So-called digital photography is a hy- brid that combines and reconfigures these two kinds of automaticity. The equivalent for computer animation would be "filmic" realism: However, the very fact that the images are in motion in computer animation and virtual reality suggests new strategies for achieving immediacy.

The production of computer animation seems to be automatic, yet the view- ing can be interactive, although the interaction may be as simple as the capacity to change one's point of view.

In painting and photography, the user's point of view was fixed. In film and television, rhe point of view was set in motion, but it was the director or editor who controlled Figure 1.

AH righrs reserved. Now, computer animation can function like film in this respect, for it too can present a sequence of predetermined camera shots. However, the sequence can also be placed under the viewer's control, as it is in animated computer video games or virtual reality. In virtual reality, the helmet that contains the eyepieces also typically contains a tracking device. As the viewer turns her head, the tracker registers the change in her orientarion, and the computer re- draws the image in each eyepiece to match her new perspective.

Because she can move her head, the viewer can see that she is immersed—that she has jumped through Alberti's window and is now inside the de- picted space. For virtual reality enthusiasts, the plane defined by the video screen on the outmoded desktop computer is like Alberti's win- dow, and it is this plane that virtual reality now shatters.


Rheingold claims that "in the s, VR technology is taking people be- yond and through the display screen into virtual worlds" As Rheingold implies, in graphics delivered on a conventional video screen, for example, in computer games, the interface is more obtrusive.

The viewer must use the mouse or the keyboard to control what she sees. Yet even here, the viewer can manipulate her point of view and may still have a feeling of immersion, especially if she can turn in a full circle.

It is remarkable how easily a player can project herself into a computer game like Myst, Riven, or Doom, despite the relatively low resolution and limited field of view afforded by the screen fig. Theorists in the second half of the twentieth century have consis- tently denied that an image is a more direct presentation of the world than is written or spoken lan- guage.

Their approach has generally been to textualize the image and therefore to take it into the dis- course of poststructuralism—a strategy apparent in works as diverse as Derrida's Of Grammatology and Nelson Goodman's Languages of An Mitchell attempts to break down the dichot- omy between words and images by arguing for a hybrid, the "im- agetext," bur his picture theory finally assimilates images to words more than the reverse.

Martin Jay has shown how almost all the influential French theoreticians of the twentieth century have sought to surround and subdue the image by means of text. In some theorists the embar- rassment becomes acure. The "puncrum" in Barthes's Camera Ltnida is precisely that element in photography that threatens to become immediate, to pull the viewer into the photograph itself. Meanwhile, in his analysis of the per- nicious reality effect of cinema, Christian Metz seems ap- palled at the thought that the "apparatus" of the cinema can lull the viewer into a hypnotic state of apparently unmediated experience.


Contemporary literary and cultural theorists would deny that linear-perspective painting, photography, film, television, or computer graphics could ever achieve unmediated presentation. Even within the academic community, among art historians and perceptual psychologists, linear perspective is still regarded as having some claim to being natural. See, for example, Gombrich ; Hagen , Meanwhile, com- puter graphics experts, computer users, and the vast audiences for popular film and television continue to assume that unmediated presen- tation is the ultimate goal of visual representation and to believe that technological progress toward that goal is being made.

When interacti- vity is combined with automaticity and the five-hundred-year-old per- spective method, the result is one account of mediation that millions of viewers today find compelling.

It is important to note that the logic of transparent immediacy does not necessarily commit the viewer to an utterly naive or magical conviction that the representation is the same thing as what it repre- sents. Immediacy is our name for a family of beliefs and practices that express themselves differently at various times among various groups, and our quick survey cannot do justice to this variety. The common feature of all these forms is the belief in some necessary contact point between the medium and what it represents.

For those who believe in the immediacy of photography, from Talbot to Bazin to Barthes, the contact point is the light that is reflected from the objects on to the film.

This light establishes an immediate relationship between the pho- tograph and the object. For theorists of linear-perspective painting and perhaps for some painters, the contact point is the mathematical rela- tionship established between the supposed objects and their projection on the canvas.

However, probably at no time or place has the logic of immediacy required that the viewer be completely fooled by the paint- ing or photograph. Trompe I'oeil, which does completely fool the viewer for a moment, has always been an exceptional practice. The film theorist Tom Gunning has argued that what we are calling the logic of transparent immediacy worked in a subtle way for filmgoers of the earliest films.

The audience members knew ar one level that the film of a train was not really a train, and yet they marveled at the discrepancy between what they knew and what their eyes told them — On the other hand, the marveling could not have happened unless the logic of immediacy had had a hold on the viewers.

There was a sense in which they believed in the reality of the image, and theorists since the Renais- sance have underwritten that belief.

This "naive" view of immediacy is the expression of a historical desire, and it is one necessary half of the double logic of remediation. The Logic of Hypermediacy Like the desire for transparent immediacy, the fascination with media also has a history as a representational practice and a cultural logic. In digital media today, the practice of hypermediacy is most evident in the heterogeneous "windowed style" of World Wide Web pages, the desktop interface, multimedia programs, and video games.

It is a visual style that, in the words of William J. Mitchell , "privileges frag- mentation, indeterminacy, and heterogeneity and. Interactive applications are often grouped under the rubric of "hypermedia," and hypermedia's "combination of random access with multiple media" has been described with typical hyperbole by Bob.

Cotten and Richard Oli- ver as "an entirely new kind of media experience born from the marriage of TV and computer technologies. Its raw ingredients are im- ages, sound, text, animation and video, which can be brought together in any combination. It is a medium that offers 'random access'; it has no physical beginning, middle, or end" 8. This definition suggests that the logic of hypermediacy had to wait for the invention of the cathode ray tube and the transistor.

However, the same logic is at work in the frenetic graphic design of cyberculture magazines like Wired and Mondo , in the patchwork layout of such mainstream print publi- cations as USA Today, and even in the earlier "multimediated" spaces of Dutch painting, medieval cathedrals, and illuminated manuscripts.

When in the s and s Douglas Englebart, Alan Kay, and their colleagues at Xerox PARC and elsewhere invented the graphi- cal user interface and called their resizable, scrollable rectangles "win- dows," they wete implicitly relying on Alberti's metaphor. Their windows opened on to a world of information made visible and almost tangible to the user, and their goal was to make the surface of these windows, the interface itself, transparent. As the windowed style has evolved in the s and s, however, ttansparency and immediacy have had to compete with other values.

In current interfaces, windows multiply on the screen; it is not unusual for sophisticated users to have ten or more overlapping or nested windows open at one time. Icons, menus, and toolbars add further layers of visual and verbal meaning. The graphical interface replaced the command-line interface, which was wholly textual.

By introducing graphical objects into the representation scheme, designers believed that they were making the interfaces "transparent" and therefore more "natural. If the paintbox software is 'intuitive,' it is only intuitive because the paintbox is a culturally familiar object" In fact, the graphical interface referred not only to culturally familiar objects, but specifically to prior media, such as painting, typewriting, and handwriting.

In making such references, computer designers were in fact creating a more complex system in which iconic and arbitrary forms of representation interact. We have only to place figure 1. Figure 1. Instead, each text window defines its own verbal, each graphic window its own visual, point of view. Windows may change scale quickly and radically, expanding to fill the screen or shrinking to the size of an icon.

And unlike the painting or computer graphic, the desktop interface does not erase itself. The multiplicity of windows and the heterogeneity of their contents mean that the user is repeatedly brought back into contact with the interface, which she learns to read just as she would read any hypertext.

She oscillates be- tween manipulating the windows and examining their contents, just as she oscillates between looking at a hypertext as a texture of links and looking through the links to the textual units as language.

With each return to the interface, the user confronts the fact that the windowed computer is simultaneously automatic and inter- active.

We have argued that the automatic chatacter of photography contributes to the photograph's feeling of immediacy, but with the win- dowed computet, the situation is more complicated.

Its interface is au- tomatic in the sense that it consists of layers of programming that are executed with each click of the mouse. Its interface is interactive in the sense that these layers of programming always return control to the user, who then initiates another automated action. Although the pro- grammer is not visible in the interface, the user as a subject is con- stantly present, clicking on buttons, choosing menu items, and dragging icons and windows. While the apparent autonomy of the ma- chine can contribute to the transparency of the technology, the buttons and menus that provide user interaction can be seen as getting in the way of the transparency.

If software designers now characterize the two- dimensional desktop interface as unnatural, they really mean that it is too obviously mediated. They preter to imagine an "interfaceless" computer offering some brand of virtual reality.

Nevertheless, the possi- bilities of the windowed style have probably not been fully explored and elaborated. One reason that this style has not been exhausted is that it func- tions as a cultural counterbalance to the desire for immediacy in digital technology.

As a counterbalance hypermediacy is more complicated and various. In digital technology, as often in the earlier history of Western representation, hypermediacy expresses itself as multiplicity. If the logic of immediacy leads one either to erase or to render automatic the act of representation, the logic of hypermediacy acknowledges multiple acts of representation and makes them visible. Where immediacy sug- gests a unified visual space, contemporary hypermediacy offers a hetero- geneous space, in which representation is conceived of not as a window on to the world, but rather as "windowed" itself—with windows that open on to other representations or other media.

The logic of hyper- mediacy multiplies the signs of mediation and in this way tries to re- produce the rich sensorium of human experience. On the other hand, hypermediacy can operate even in a single and apparently unified me- dium, particularly when the illusion of realistic representation is some- how stretched or altogether ruptured.

For example, perspective paint- ings or computer graphics are often hypermediated, particularly when they offer fantastic scenes that the viewer is not expected to accept as real or even possible.

Hypermediacy can also manifest itself in the creation of multimedia spaces in the physical world, such as theme parks or video arcades.

As a historical counterpart to the desire for transparent imme- diacy, the fascination with media or mediation can be found in such diverse forms as medieval illuminated manuscripts, Renaissance altar- pieces, Dutch painting, baroque cabinets, and modernist collage and photomontage. The logic of immediacy has perhaps been dominant in Western representation, at least from the Renaissance until the coming of modernism, while hypermediacy has often had to content itself with a secondary, if nonetheless important, status.

Sometimes hypermediacy has adopted a playful or subversive attitude, both acknowledging and undercutting the desire for immediacy. At other times, the two logics have coexisted, even when the prevailing readings of art history have made it hard to appreciate their coexistence. At the end of the twentieth century, we are in a position to understand hypermediacy as immedia- cy's opposite number, an alter ego that has never been suppressed fully or for long periods of time.

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We cannot hope to explore in detail the complex genealogy of hypermediacy through centuries of Western visual representation; we can only offer a few examples that are particularly resonant with digital hypermediacy today. Some resonances seem obvious. For example, the European cathedral with its stained glass, relief statuary, and inscrip- tions was a collection of hypermediated spaces, both physical and repre- sentational.

And within the grand space of the cathedral, altarpieces provided a sophisticated form of hypermediacy, because they not only juxtaposed media but also embodied contradictory spatial logics. As perspectival representation came into painting, it is interesting to see, for example, a Flemish altarpiece by Arnt van Kalker, now in the Musee de Cluny in Paris, with a carved representation of the Passion at the center and painted perspectival scenes on both the inside and the out- side of the cabinet doors.

The closed doors depict depth in the repre- sented space; when they are opened, they reveal a bas-relief three- dimensional Passion scene that stops at the back of the cabinet. Thtough this interplay of the real third dimension with its perspectival representation, the Kalker altarpiece connects the older sculptural tra- dition with the newer tradition of perspectival representation.

Represented and real three-dimensional spaces were also com- bined in many secular cabinets of the sixteenth and seventeenth centu- ries, which could have upwards of fifty drawers, doors, and panels, each painted with a perspectival landscape or genre scene. The pictures on the doors and drawers of these cabinets ironically duplicated the three- dimensional space that they concealed. Thus, the two-dimensional pic- tures on the doors opened on to a fictional space, while the painted doors themselves opened on to a physical one.

For an example, see fig- ure 1. Something similar is happening in digital design today.

The windowed style is beginning to play a similar game of hide and seek as two-dimensional text windows and icons conceal and then expose three-dimensional graphic images and digitized video.

Even the icons and folders of the conventional desktop metaphor function in two spaces: We are not alone in noting this resemblance.

In Good Looking, art historian Barbara Stafford has remarked on the parallels between digital media and baroque cabinets—in particular when she describes the so-called Wunderkammer: Looking back from the perspective of the com- puter era, the artifacts in a Wunderkammer seem less physical phenomena and more material links permitting the beholder to retrieve complicated personal and cultural associations. Looking forward from the Enlightenment world of ap- parently miscellaneous pleasures, we discern that scraps of wood, stone, or metal, Metsu, David Bailly, and especially Jan Vermeer often represented the world as made up of a multiplicity of representations.

Their paintings were not multimedia; rather, they absotbed and captured multiple me- dia and multiple forms in oil. This Dutch art has often been contrasted with the paradigm of Renaissance Italian painting with its representa- tion of a more unified visual space, in which the signs of mediation were meticulously erased, We can in fact find hypermediacy in individual works and individual painters throughout the period in which linear perspective and erasure were ascendant: Hypetmediacy can be found even in the mechanical technolo- gies of reproduction of the nineteenth century.

Jonathan Crary has challenged the traditional view that photography is the continua- tion and perfection of the technique of linear-perspective painting. For Crary, there was a rupture early in the nineteenth century, when the stable observation captured by the old camera obscura and by perspec- tive painting was replaced by a new goal of mobility of observation.

Reflecting this goal was a new set of now archaic devices: These devices, characterized by multiple images, moving images, or sometimes moving observers, seem to have operated under both these logics at the same time, as they incorporated transparent immediacy within hypermediacy.

The phena- kistoscope employed a spinning wheel and multiple images to give the impression of movement. The appeal to immediacy here was that a moving picture, say, of a horse, is more realistic than a static image. On the other hand, it was not easy for the user to ignore or forget the contraption of the phenakistoscope itself, when even its name was so contrived. The phenakistoscope made the user aware of the desite for immediacy that it attempted to satisfy.

The same was true of the stereo- scope, which offered users a three-dimensional image that seemed to float in space. The image was eerie, and the device unwieldy so that the stereoscope fig.

Crary shows us that hypermediacy manifested itself in the nineteenth century alongside and around the transparent Figure 1. As Clement Greenberg puts it, "Realistic, illusionist art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art. Modernism used art to call attention to art. The limita- tions that constitute the medium of painting—the flat surface, the shape of the support, the properties of pig- ment—were treated by the Old Masters as negative factors that could be acknowledged only implic- itly or indirectly.

Modernist painting has come to regard these same limitations as positive factors that are to be acknowledged openly. Greenberg , sees collage as an expression of the ten- sion between the modernist emphasis on the surface of the paint- ing and the inherited tradition of three-dimensional representation. When Braque and Picasso took to pasting scraps of newspaper and wallpaper on their canvases, they cre- ated a hypermediated experience in which the viewer oscillates between seeing the pasted objects as objects and seeing them as parr of the painted scene.

The viewer is con- stantly reminded of the materials, the surface, and the mediated charac- ter of this space. In making us conscious of the medium, photomontage can be seen technology of photography. Nevertheless, the logic of transparent im- mediacy remained dominant. The obvious fact is that the conventional camera survived and flourished, while these other technologies did not.

According to Clement Greenberg's influential formulation, it was not until modernism that the cultural dominance of the paradigm of transparency was effectively challenged. Collage and photomontage in particular provide evidence of the modernist fascinarion with the reality of media. When photomonteurs cut up and recombine conventional photographs, they discredit the notion that the photograph is drawn by the "pencil of nature," as Talbot had suggested.

Instead, the photographs themselves become elements that human intervention has selected and arranged for artistic purposes. Photographs pasted beside and on top of each other and in the context of other media, such as type, painting, or pencil drawing, create a lay- ered effect that we also find in electronic multimedia.

We become hyperconscious of the medium in photo- montage, precisely because conventional photography is a medium with such loud historical claims to transparency. In collage and photomontage as in hyper- media, to create is to rearrange existing forms. In photomontage the preexisting forms are photographs; in literary hypertext they are para- graphs of prose; and in hypermedia they may be prose, graphics, anima- tions, videos, and sounds.

In ail cases, the artist is denning a space through the disposition and interplay of forms that have been detached from their original context and then recombined.

Like Greenberg, Lanham regards collage as "the central technique of twentieth-century visual art"; Lanham wants to include digital design in the twentieth- century mainstream, which has often creared heterogeneous spaces and made viewers conscious of the act of representation In the twentieth century, as indeed earlier, it is not only high art that seeks to combine heterogeneous spaces. Graphic design for print, particularly for magazines and newspapers, is becoming increasingly hypermediated as well.

Magazines like Wired or Mondo owe their conception of hypermediacy less to the World Wide Web than to the both to accept and to challenge the received understanding of photogra- phy as transparent, From one point of view, photomontage can be in- terpreted as a deviation from the essentially transparent and unified nature of photography.

On the other hand, photomontage can be seen not as deviating from photography's true nature as a transparent medium but as exemplifying its irreducible hypermediacy. This latter interpreta- tion of the photographic medium has been advanced by W. Mitch- ell in the idea of the "imagetext. The affiliations of a newspaper like the USA Today are more contemporary. Although the paper has been criticized for lowering print journalism to the level of television news, visually the USA Today does not draw primarily on television.

Its layout resembles a multimedia computer application more than it does a tele- vision broadcast; the paper attempts to emulate in print fig. For that matter, televi- sion news ptograms also show the influence of the graphical user inter- face when they divide the screen into two or more frames and place text and numbers over and around the framed video images.

Reprinted with permission. In all its various forms, the logic of hypermediacy expresses the tension between regarding a visual space as mediated and as a "real" space that lies beyond mediation.

Lanham calls this the tension between looking at and looking through, and he sees it as a feature of twentieth-century art in general and now digital representation in par- ticular , , A viewer confronting a collage, for example, os- cillates between looking at the patches of paper and paint on the surface of the work and looking through to the depicted objects as if they occu- pied a real space beyond the surface. What characterizes modern art is an insistence that the viewer keep coming back to the surface or, in extreme cases, an attempt to hold the viewer at the surface indefinitely.

In the logic of hypermediacy, the artist or multimedia programmer or web designer strives to make the viewer acknowledge the medium as a medium and to delight in that acknowledgment.

She does so by mul- tiplying spaces and media and by repeatedly tedefming the visual and conceptual relationships among mediated spaces—relationships chat may range from simple juxtaposition to complete absorption. Fot digital artist David Rokeby, the dichotomy between trans- parency and opacity is precisely what distinguishes the attitude of engi- neers from that of artists in the new technologies.

Rokeby is clearly adopting a modernist aesthetic when he writes that "while engi- neers strive to maintain the illusion of transparency in the design and refinement of media technologies, artists explore the meaning of the interface itself, using various transformations of the media as their pal- ette" In fact, since Matisse and Picasso, or perhaps since the impressionists, artists have been "exploring the interface.

Media the- orist Erkki Huhtamo points out that acknowledgment is charac- teristic of our culture's attitude to digital technology in general: There is no need to make it transparent any longer, simply because it is not felt to be in contradiction to the 'authenticity' of the experience" And Huhtamo is right to insist that hypermediacy can also provide an "au- thentic" experience, at least for our current culture; otherwise, we could not account for the tremendous influence of, for example, rock music.

Above, we identified the logic of transparent immediacy in computer games such as Myst and Doom, but other CD-ROMs operate according to our other logic and seem to revel in their nature as medi- ated artifacts.

It should not be surprising that some of the clearest ex- amples of digital hypermediacy such as the Residents' Freak Show, Peter Gabriel's Xplora 1, and the Emergency Broadcast Network's Tele- communications Breakdown come directly or indirectly from the world of rock music production and presentation. Initially, when "liveness" was the signifying mark of the rock sound, early recordings adhered to the logic of transparency and aimed to sound "live.

Auslander, forthcoming. The evolution of re- cording techniques also changed the nature of live performance. As early as the late s and s, performers such as Alice Cooper, David Bowie, and Kiss began to create elaborate, consciously artificial productions. The traditional "musical" qualities of these productions. Today, the stage presentations of rock bands like U2 are celebrations of media and the act of mediation, while "avant-garde" artists like Laurie Anderson, the Residents, and the Emergency Broadcast Network are creating CD- ROMs that reflect and comment on such stage presentations with their seemingly endless repetition within the medium and multiplication across media.

For example, in the number "Electronic Behavior Control System" by the Emergency Broadcast Network, the computer screen can be tiled into numerous small windows with shifting graphics, while a central window displays digitized clips from old films and television shows fig.

This visual multiplicity is synchronized to an insistent "techno-rock" soundtrack. At times one or other digitized character will seem to enunciate a corresponding phrase on the soundtrack, as if all these remnants of old media had come together ro perform this piece of music.

In a similar spirit, the Residents' Freak Shaw both juxtaposes media and replaces one medium with another as it combines music with graphics and animations reminiscent of comic books and other popular forms. Except for rock music, the World Wide Web is perhaps our culture's most influential expression of hypermediacy. As Michael Joyce reminds us, replacement is the essence of hypertext, and in a sense the whole World Wide Web is an exercise in replacement: When the user c on an underlined phrase or an iconic anchor on a web page, a In activated that calls up another page.

The new material usually app in the original window and erases the previous text or graphic, altho the action of clicking may instead create a separate frame within same window or a new window laid over the first.

The new page w our attention through the erasure interpenetration , tiling juxtapt tion , or overlapping multiplication of the previous page. However the older medium cannot be entirely effaced, the new medium is still dependent in acknowledged or unacknowledged ways upon the older medium. For literary e-books the dependency upon the older medium could be the textual aspect of literature.

Unlike the former form of remediation this form does create an apparently seamless space, it promises the user an unmediated experience. Multimedia e-books could be an example of the third and fourth form of remediation. Multimedia e-books embed different media such as music, video and games.

Examples of multimedia e-books are the iBook and the Vook. Penguin has launched several iBooks. Penguin also launched an adult text book, the reader can zoom in on pictures and videos are inserted. The classifying of the multimedia e-book as the third or fourth form of remediation depends on the manner in which the different media forms are implemented in the text.

If the media forms are implemented seamlessly into the text in order that the discontinuities of the different media are minimized, the multimedia e-book can be classified as the fourth form remediation. If the media forms are implemented in a fragmented manner: in separate windows with different operating systems which can be viewed one at a time the multimedia e-book can be classified as the third form of remediation.

The concept remediation leads to other debates about convergence and medium specificity. Convergence is previously separate technologies such as voice, data, image and video which now share resources and interact with other. A good example of convergence is the computer; we listen to music, watch films, read books on one medium for which in the past we needed several devices like a television and a book.

Medium specificity is a principle in aesthetics and art criticism. Also has to be decided which content is appropriated for which medium?

I think the answer is like the case of 3D movies; not all movie genres are appropriate for 3D. And not for every book value is added by enhancing them. For new media it can occur that a feature is embedded which is no longer functional in itself but refers back to a feature which was functional for an older medium. Katherine Hayles calls these features skeuomorph. She explains the presence of these skeuomorph as the psychological necessity for innovation to be tempered by replication. The new is found to be more acceptable when it recalls the old.

In this way the transition between the old and the new is smoothened. This concept can also be reversed; new possibilities offered by the new media are not immediately noticed. For manuscripts there is no need for page numbers since there are only a few copies of one book, however if books are disseminated in large quantities it is useful to be able to make references to pages.

Another example is that the first printed books were printed with a typeface which copied the appearance of script instead of a typeface which was easier to read.

This is called the horseless carriage syndrome: employing old methods on new technology. Remedation leads to questioning the status of the medium.

As my example of the e-books show this leads to questioning how a new medium must be defined. Can you still call an iPad book a book, is it a new media or maybe a hybrid medium?

A new cultural definition for a book is needed. This was also the case for the computer; in the early days of the computer we thought of computers exclusively as word processors, now we think of them as devices for generating images, creating animation and special effects, reworking photographs etc. Remediation also leads to the question whether new media can make older media obsolete. Can VR be the ultimate medium which incorporates all other medium?

Is VR the last medium in the goal of medium to reach total immediacy? References Bolter, Jay David. Hayles, Katherine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Jay, Martin.

Lessing, G. Ryan, Marie-Laure.Picking up from McLuhan, media theorists Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin , in their book Remediation: Understanding New Media, sought to describe how media forms interact with one another through remediation and the way that this media practice invokes the interrelated processes of immediacy and hypermediacy. The evolution of re- cording techniques also changed the nature of live performance.

The blogosphere is an unmediated space that allows flexibility and consumer interpretation of the elite fashion world. At the very least, their work reminds us that refashioning one's predecessors is key to understanding repre- sentation in earlier media. A similar argument could be made for television, especially for the "live" coverage of news and sporting events, which promise im- mediacy through their real-time presentation.

As the windowed style has evolved in the s and s, however, ttansparency and immediacy have had to compete with other values. In both cases, the human agent is erased, although the techniques of erasure are rather different. Daniela Santos.

For cultural institutions and policy-makers, the forms of experimentation made available by Google create new entertainment opportunities of providing game experiences in non-game contexts with the aim of generating learning along with entertainment.