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Cambridge: The University Press, A foray into the worlds of animals and humans: with a theory of meaning.
Traduzido por Joseph D. Abstraction and empathy: a contribution to the psychology of style. Traduzido por Michael Bullock. Nova Iorque: International Universities Press, Form in Gothic. Traduzido por Herbert Read.
Londres: Putnam, L'Art gothique. Traduzido por D. Paris: Gallimard, His research and his teaching discuss the invention of spatial, architectural and technological devices related to habitations in Western industrial and post-industrial societies. How to quote this text: Teyssot, G.
The Diagram as Abstract Machine. RUS, n. The V! RUS journal gratefully acknowledges for the permission to republish here this article. Abstract Whether graph or chart, the architectural diagram is today an ubiquitous presence. As graphic inscription of abstraction in space, since the s, the notion of diagram has been so much extended that now it nearly encompasses every aspect of design.
To think of the diagram as an architecture of ideas or, more classically, the idea of architecture means to be still ensconced in some sort of platonic conceptions Garcia, Such understanding may lead to a better comprehension of the present algorithmic nature of diagrams.
These scripted procedures refer to form, or, more precisely, to processes of morphogenesis. Their aim is to enhance a modulation between natural components, physical elements, and architectural design. A range of practices or protocols based on adaptable customable software, capable of producing changing modalities of a structural topology driven by performance, are currently available Teyssot and Bernier-Lavigne, Sedentary distributions, good sense, and common sense, are all based upon a synthesis of time, which has been determined as that of habit Deleuze, , p.
Such is the state that physics described in thermodynamics, from Sadi Carnot to Rudolf Clausius and Ludwig Boltzmann whose equation described the diffusion of gas particles on a statistical method : that is, entropy Deleuze, , p. For Deleuze, it is necessary to recognize the primacy of multiple forces upon the form.
In Difference and Repetition, he identifies this link between forces and forms as the two vectors of difference, using Henri Bergson and Gilbert Simondon as sources Sauvagnargues, , pp.
For Simondon, the individuation of the crystal is the physical formation obtained by a difference in potential. This difference is the entropic arrow between tension and matter as in a crystal Deleuze, , pp. Deleuze translates this differentiation in terms of oscillation, a simultaneous vibration between the actual and the virtual, which are coexistent.
Both states are real, but the actual characterizes the completed individual, such as the materialized crystal, while the virtual refers to the problematic field of the pre-individual, when the intensive differentiation is not yet actualized. To illustrate this, Deleuze, following Simondon, uses the model of an egg, the paradigm of an intensive body, literally a body without organs, because it is a body going through phases of differentiation Sauvagnargues, , p.
Actualization occurs in things through a process of differentiation. Embryology shows that the division of an egg into parts is secondary in relation to more significant morphogenetic movements.
Deleuze describes the kinematics of an egg, going through its various processes. Deleuze, , p. However, if the world is an egg, then the egg itself is a theater: a stage with actors, spaces, and ideas, and where a spatial drama is played.
For Ruyer, in every domain, form is endowed with a proper rhythm. If Deleuze , p. For Deleuze, form is not what remains of a physical action, nor is it the result of a depleted force: it is the outcome of a provisional state of equilibrium between forces Deleuze, , pp. The world is an egg.
For Artaud, the completed organism felt like a form that imprisons the body Sauvagnargues, , pp.
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During the s, Deleuze and Guattari will never ask anybody to deprive himself of its organs, but to replace the notion of a full-grown organ by the metamorphic and polymorphic conception of an immature organ while it differentiates.
What Deleuze and Guattari proposed was to consider the virtual axes of informal forces Sauvagnargues, , p. The ideal mold is similar to the ideal type in art history, art, or design. Simondon elaborated a precise criticism of the idea of a mold by introducing the concept of modulation. To proceed to such a demolding Fr. Throughout his work, Deleuze also recommends altering the idea of molding by introducing that of modulation.
In , for example, he affirmed Deleuze, , p. Contemporary science shows that genotype is not a mold that determines the individual in a univocal mode.
Between the genotype and the phenotype, a process of development inserts itself, where the temporal variable plays a role as important as the spatial and topological variables 4. The structure actualizes itself through a process of development, introducing factors of stochastic and temporal variability that singularize the individual prototype.
If one can speak of metaphors, it is in the noblest sense, since they were able to grasp theoretical issues even in domains that had not yet been clearly perceived by science itself.
Intensive Diagram The body without organs conveys the notion of matter in a not-yet-formed state, of a body not-yet-represented, or an unrepresentable body in its schizophrenic version. Overcoming organized form, one is introduced to matter as a receptacle of forces.
Beyond the matter-form opposition, beyond organized form, there is matter as a non-formal mix of forces and materials. More than a metaphor, the body without organs refers to the notion of machine and of diagram, developed, in parallel, in the work of Michel Foucault, of which Deleuze is a keen interpreter.
Dealing with fluxes, fluids, functions, it churns up matter, form, energy, networks. Such a machine is concerned with the representation of relation of forces, belonging to a stratified formation, and it doubles the stratification for examples, the strata of history and of society.
This intensive diagram should not be conceived as a permanent structure, nor thought as a pre-existing form, but rather as a virtual problem -- that is, a complex of forces Sauvagnargues, , p.
Or even a Baroque diagram. As Deleuze , p. Indissociable from its actualization, the diagram is used to inject some becoming in every point of the stratified reality Sauvagnargues, , p.
The concept of the diagram as an abstract machine helps us to understand the biological and machine-like reality of so many strata, such as institutions, technologies, and apparatuses; including heterotopias Defert, , pp. In the scheme drawn by Deleuze, there is a gigantic fold, which indicates the position of oneself in relation to the task of producing new modes of subjectification.
This way, three agencies or instances are being held together by a fold, which acts as topological operator Deleuze, , p.
Outside and inside are inverted. Far and near converge. It is possible to immerse oneself in an archive made of visible forms and articulate bodies; to cross surfaces, graphs, charts, and curves; and to follow fissures in order to reach an interior of the world.
But at the same time it is also necessary to climb above the strata in order to reach an outside, an atmospheric element Deleuze, , p. Rising above the static opposition between form and matter, situating oneself in an energetic dimension, it becomes possible to think materiality in terms of movement and forces, and introduce a potential of deformation active in the material.
Already in the s, while opposing the Platonism of Colin Rowe, Reyner Banham advocated a topological architecture Banham, , pp. Suddenly, what formed the basis of the traditional categories of space sees its meaning transformed, by transmutation, into a topological contact surface. Fluid Spaces Today, a question remains: how have topological concepts been introduced in architecture? Perhaps, a particularly refined topology is needed to describe the formation of spirals and vortices, or nomadic, smooth spaces, which are formed by haptic relations.
As Deleuze and Guattari put forward, haecceities are to be found along intersecting lines Deleuze and Guattari, , p.
A haecceity has neither beginning nor end, origin nor destination; it is always in the middle; it is not made of points, only lines. As it were, haecceity, or individuation, helped to explain the existence of particular individuals.
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Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam. And, using the Law of Cosines: Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is 30 kN in member A and 20 kN in member B, determine, using trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces applied to the bracket by members A and B.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is 20 kN in member A and 30 kN in member B, determine, using trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces applied to the bracket by members A and B.
Knowing that P must have a N horizontal component, determine a the magnitude of the force P, b its vertical component. Knowing that P must have a N vertical component, determine a the magnitude of the force P, b its horizontal component. Knowing that P must have a lb horizontal component, determine a the magnitude of the force P, b its vertical component. Knowing that P must have a lb component perpendicular to arm BC of the crank, determine a the magnitude of the force P, b its component along line BC.
Knowing that P has a N component along line AC, determine a the magnitude of the force P, b its component in a direction perpendicular to AC. Their high temperatures make them lethal to anything in their path. Billowing ash clouds rise above the denser basal portion, which can consist of vesiculated pumice or dense lava clasts. Photo by Chris Newhall, U. Geological Survey. Helens on May 18, swept 30 km away from the volcano, blowing down giant trees like matchsticks.
The blast, traveling at velocities up to 10 km per hour, devastated sq km over a broad area nearly degrees wide north of the volcano.
Photo by John Dvorak, U. The flat, light-colored areas in the foreground are pyroclastic-flow deposits that filled the Marella River valley on Pinatubo's SW flank to a depth of m, more than the height of the Washington Monument.
The dark hill at the center was completely surrounded by pyroclastic flows, which traveled 14 km down this valley. Photo by Rick Hoblitt, U.
Helens in produced these cross-bedded layers. They were deposited from successive, rapidly moving horizontal clouds of gas, ash, and rock fragments that resulted from the interaction of still-hot pyroclastic-flow deposits from the May 18 eruption with groundwater and fragments of Mount St.
Helens glaciers carried down by the collapse of the summit.To proceed to such a demolding Fr. Such a mode offers the possibility to integrate the expertise of designers and engineers on a unique computational platform. Tipos de derrames Submarine extrusion of magma produces a characteristic "pillow lava" morphology, as seen here on Loihi seamount SE of the island of Hawaii.
RESOLUCAO - mecânica vetorial para engenheiros - estática - beer 7ª edição - solucionário
Determine a themoment of the N force about D, b the magnitude andsense of the horizontal force applied at C that creates thesame moment about D, c the smallest force applied at C that creates the same moment aboutD.
Traduzido por Hugh Tomlinson e Graham Burchell. Please Login.
Translated by Brian Massumi.